Abstract. OBJECTIVES Oromandibular dystonia (OMD) is a focal dystonia manifested by involuntary muscle contractions producing repetitive, patterned mouth. Oromandibular dystonia is a form of focal dystonia affecting the mouth, jaw and tongue, and in this disease it is hard to speak. It is associated with bruxism. Oromandibular dystonia causes spasms of the jaw, lips, and tongue muscles. This dystonia can cause problems with speech and swallowing.

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A new approach to rehabilitate dystonias. Extreme Tourette in adulthood is a rarity; 4 tardive dyskinesias TDs are involuntary movements of the tongue, lips, face, trunk, and extremities that occur in patients treated with long-term dopaminergic antagonist medications; our patient suffered from the muscular contractions for one and a half years with no previous drug history.

Etiology The mechanism and oromandbiular cause of OMD are not well known.

Etiology, Diagnosis and Management of Oromandibular Dystonia: an Update for Stomatologists

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, ooromandibular permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided distnoia original work is properly cited. Table 1 The articles categorized based on dental etiology. The electrophysiological data of these patients suggests that dystonia is associated with several changes in neuronal activity in striatal circuits such as an alteration in the rate, pattern, somatosensory responsiveness, and synchronization of neural activity in palladium thalamocortical circuits Figure 7 [ 7 ].

Dysarthria or breathing difficulties are also reported rarely.

What Is Oromandibular Dystonia?

Anticonvulsants such as carbamazepine reduce severe muscle spasm by decreasing polysynaptic response [ 11 ]. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Rewiring the brain through dance.

Retrieved from ” https: The complaint of ill-fitting full dentures in these patients should be taken seriously.

Oromandibular dystonia

They concluded that different predisposing factors such as an associated movement disorder, family history of tremors, edentulous state, exposure to neuroleptic drugs, and peripheral nerve injury may contribute to the development of this movement disorder under some conditions or in certain vulnerable people; however, the relationship between them may be purely coincidental.

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Current concepts on distonnia clinical features, aetiology and management of idiopathic cervical dystonia.

According to Xu et al. Oromandibular dystonia OMD is a movement disorder characterized by involuntary, paroxysmal, and patterned muscle contractions of varying severity resulting in sustained spasms of masticatory muscles, affecting the jaws, tongue, face, and pharynx. Like us on Facebook. In the reported case, spasm of lateral pterygoid muscles was revealed by neurologic evaluation, and medication and botulinum neurotoxins BoNT were utilized for relief.

The diagnosis of dystonia is challenging, as recognition of clinical findings at the time of presentation is affected by several factors such as the psychological status of the patient and the training of the clinician. Botulinum toxin acts on neuromuscular junction through the steps of 1 attachment, 2 endocytosis, 3 activation of short chain, and 4 disruption of SNARE proteins as depicted in Figure 8.

Tongue suturing, tongue protection with bite guard, composite restorations for shaping sharp teeth, partial glossectomy, no dental extractions. Primary dystonia can be either sporadic or inherited, and is not associated with any cognitive, pyramidal, cerebellar, or sensory abnormalities. Hemifacial involuntary spasmodic contraction of masseter and temporalis was seen producing repetitive pattern of jaw closing pattern and tongue movements.

Tic disorders in school-age children are higher, with the more common tics of eye blinking, coughing, throat clearing, sniffing, and facial movements.

Early detection of the patients complaint and having an understanding of the anatomy which is responsible for the characteristic clinical signs and symptoms play a significant role in successful management of the case [ 910 ].

Peripherally induced oromandibular dystonia. They concluded that patients with craniocervical dyskinesia might be at risk of developing severe and rapidly-spreading dystonia as a result of dental procedures. Treatment Treatment of OMD is multi-disciplinary and varies from one patient to another.

The dystonia spread very fast to involve the larynx, causing life- threatening laryngospasm which was treated by intubation. Surgical therapies are the last effort for individuals suffering from certain types of dystonia. This response is well recognized in musicians. Case Report A year-old female patient visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology with a chief complaint of spontaneous, painful constrictive movements on her right side of face with a feeling of constriction in her neck leading to difficulty in breathing.


This article is intended to promote understanding of and knowledge about general oral health topics.

Prosthesis oromandibula minimal adjustment in recalls. At the 3-month recall, the symptoms had returned with less intensity. The patients had worn the dentures from a minimum of 1 to many years before noticing the abnormal movements.

As dentists, our main aim and goal would be to identify such often misdiagnosed cases of suffering patients often pushed dixtonia the realm of mental illness as many a time we might be their only distomia. Speech difficulties, eating problems, swallowing issues and dental problems oromandiibular possible, as well as depression and other psychological impacts.

Open in a separate window. The content you are trying to view is available only to logged in, current MedLink Neurology subscribers. Conclusion Duo to various dental treatment options, all people are somehow being involved in dental treatments, with which OMD is likely to coincide. Published online Jun Restoring the Edentulous Patient with Oromandibular Dystonia: Open in a separate window.

Consultation with the neurologic department ruled out other neurologic disorders and this was confirmed by the absence of any other accompanying neurologic deficits. Immediate implantations of the lower right molar teeth in one case, oromandibbular partial denture in the other were performed.

Bruxism and cranial- cervical dystonia: The difference between idiopathic sleep bruxism and OMD-induced bruxism is that the latter usually stops while sleeping. By modification of the prosthesis, slight improvement of the symptoms was achieved. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. It is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice, diagnosis or treatment.

A dental bite block is often used to create jaw stability. They are also required to be familiar with the special considerations in managing dental treatment of OMD patients.

For jaw closing dystonia, BTX-A is injected into the masseter muscle at the angle of the mandible and 20 units of BoNT are injected into each site. Carbamazepine BD dose with 1, 3, 6, 9 months’ follow-up with patient testimony.