charge enonciative dans trois genres de texts expositifs” (“The Processes of. Enunciation in Three Types of Expository Text”) (Itziar Plazaola. Le texte expositif, quant à lui, est une production dans laquelle les locuteurs créent une structure thématique (Boscolo, ; Britton, ) et fait appel à des . Les titres et intertitres sont des dispositifs de signalisation fréquemment utilisés dans les textes expositifs. De nombreuses recherches réalisées en psychologie.
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Contemporary Educational Psychology 21 3: Effects of Encoding Cues on Prose Learning.
However, the two signals are realized differently; whereas the preview sentence is completely explicit in its communication that a new section is beginning, the heading communicates this information implicitly by being set off spatially from the preceding and following sections. In the next section, we summarize a general theory of text signals that addresses these goals.
Thus, important questions for future research are to more thoroughly develop the constructs of relevance and accessibility and examine their influence on signaling effects.
Headings may explicitly communicate the sequential trxte of the sections of a text; in fact, headings sometimes consist solely of numbers at the start of each new text section e. As we have already noted, etxte, not all headings are topic-identifying.
Looking more closely, it is clear that in each example the headings work together as a set, and that different kinds of relations apply between the members of the sets. Finally, we address the question of what future research directions are suggested by our framework. Journal of Educational Psychology 93 2: Given our definition of headings, all headings demarcate text sections and provide a unique label for each exposotif.
The general strategy followed in this research was to construct texts with competing themes and manipulate the title of the text to emphasize one of the two themes, then observe the effects on free recall. As an example, information about the organization of topics in expositlf text is more accessible if it is communicated by an advance outline than if it is communicated by a system of headings interspersed in a text because the outline relieves the reader of gathering all the information together.
Journal of Educational Psychology 87 4: In fact, there is a relatively extensive empirical literature in psychology that generally supports the hypothesis that signals may help processing of expository text Lorch, Bibliographie AustinJ.
An Essay in the Philosophy of Language.
Discourse Processes 9 4: SARA hypothesizes that any signaling device serves one or more of seven distinguishable information functions:. Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Signalling Text Organisation. This propositional topic can take the form of a verbal noun, nominalization, infinitive clause or even a clause with a finite verb, and there is no direct repetition in the text, but rather topical development making use of different —though thematically related— expressions.
Understanding How Headings Influence Text Processing
To reach this goal, we urge more collaboration between linguists, fxpositif and cognitive psychologists. Some relevant questions are: Or are performance differences due to the loss of segmentation cues provided in part by the white space?
An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Journal of Educational Psychology 77 2: We present a theory of signaling devices that provides a detailed analysis of variation in titles and headings and generates predictions concerning their effects.
How to Do Things with Words: The reader-based component relates the text-based dimensions to reader variables to predict signaling effects on text processing. That is, what are the information functions of signals? Van DijkT. In this case the heading identifies the topic as major participant.
Cornish, which recur from utterance to utterance, thus creating referential continuity and topical unity. This research shows that a title influences attention to ambiguous words that are specifically related to the title. First, Lorch and Lorch found that readers process a sentence more slowly if its function is explicitly labeled than if the function is not labeled.
Contemporary Educational Psychology 33 4: The two types of headings served the functions of demarcating and labeling text sections and providing information about the linear structure of the text; they differed only with respect to whether they identified topics.
Shortcomings of previous research. The findings support the distinction between sequential and hierarchical information functions of headings.
Based on this approach to understanding the purposes of signaling devices, SARA proposes that signals may be analyzed along four dimensions:.
The function of the headings is to foreground specific content that is also available in the text. The text-based component of SARA. The heading provides a context for integrating subsequent information, but leaves it to the reader to identify or construct the main points of the section.
Improving Memory for Prose: Are differences in performance on the two text versions attributable to the fact that the control text omitted topic-identifying headings?
According to Genettetitles may have four different functions: The experiments to be summarized here tested the remaining six information functions. One central claim in TAM is that text formatting properties are meaningful because they are reduced forms of metasentences.
One benefit expoitif psychologists is that linguistic analyses of text will lead to more precise characterizations of text and manipulations of text characteristics e. Discourse Processes 15 3: Thus, when headings are shown to produce better recall, it is not possible texts determine whether the benefits of headings are due to their communication of organizational information or to some other information function of the heading e.
This definition is consistent with those of Virbel and Genette